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The endochronic cyclic plasticity with finite element analysis (EndoFEM) is employed to simulate plasticity-induced crack closure phenomenon of Al 2024-T3 CCT specimens under maximum cyclic stress of 80MPa and 0.1 stress ratio (R). Various fatigue crack lengths are generated by a rc dominated-node-released strategy. The suitability of element-mesh planning around crack tip is supported by the real simulations in the decreasing tendencies of crack opening load (Pop) with increased distance behind the crack tip, and the enough elements to reflect the reversed plastic responses at minimum load.

EndoFEM results of vertical stress ahead of the crack tip show a typical distribution of small scale yield (SSY) in the realm of fracture mechanics; and Pop/Pmax ratio determined at 1mm behind crack tip is kept constant i.e. Kmax-independent. In these cases, fatigue parameters based on either the far field loading parameter ΔK, the effective ΔK (ΔKeff) with crack closure effect, or the mechanical responses ahead of crack tip (e.g. stress parameter, reversed (plastic) strain at 1mm) are all equivalent and are linearly correlated with the stage II fatigue crack growth (FCP) rate. However, for longer crack length with the ligament bending effect or shorter crack length with the starter notch effect, the Pop/Pmax ratio decreases and changes the SSY stress distribution. This result reduces the usefulness of the above fatigue parameters. As a consequence, a nonlinear correlation of FCP rates with ΔK or ΔKeff are purely empirical. The Kmax-dependent ΔKeff must be considered in the correlation as suggested by the present study of EndoFEM.

Steels are the most common materials used in industries because of their versatility and cost [14]. Among their wide range from plain carbon to high alloy steels, low-alloy wear-resistant steels, and above all Hardox steels, have recently attracted significant interest because of their good weldability, machinability, high mechanical properties, favorable wear-resistant, relatively low crack sensitivity, and good ductility [15,16]. These advantages allow these materials to be used as elements of construction machinery, such as beds of dump trucks and the buckets of excavators and loaders, in which these elements are subject to abrasive materials, including soil and gravel [17,18,19,20].

As Hardox steels are mainly considered to be low alloy steels, their microstructure and properties may differ based on the content of carbon and alloying elements, such as Ni, Mn, Mo, and Cr, which somewhat affect their durability, hardness, and hardenability [17]. This variety in compositions and structures complicates the investigation across the weld zone (WZ) [16,20,21,22]. For example, it has been reported that low hydrogen ferritic steel filler leads to better transverse tensile and fatigue properties, whereas austenitic stainless steel filler results in better impact toughness [21,22]. Additionally, as reported by Sharma and Shahi [23], joint welded using filler metal containing Cr and Mo with Nb, Ti, Al, V, Cu, and N as micro-alloying additions represented a weld metal, wherein martensitic refinement occurred and had the highest microhardness of about 400 HV. Since these alloying elements lead to the formation of carbides and inclusion, detailed knowledge of the distribution of impurities and structures may result in a better understanding of the probable crack formation in terms of their origin and mechanisms.

The popular abrasive-wear resistant steel Hardox 400 is usually characterized by good weldability [24]. Nevertheless, the thermal processes of welding lead to the degradation of microstructures in HAZ by creating an unhardened layer; this results in significant changes of hardness [25]. These phenomena are often accompanied by not only welding but also the processing and forming operations of the constructional elements of the filler metals. The unfavorable structures and hardness levels which occur in welded joints of low-alloy, high-strength steels can be greatly changed by filler metal compositions [26]. Based on the previous studies [25,27], it can be concluded that it is worth complementing the issues related to making and optimizing the properties of welded joints of Hardox 500 steel. Plus, this is often motivated by the adverse opinion about the weldability of this steel, which usually results in the resignation of its welding or in replacing it with another grade with lower strength but better weldability [28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35,36,37,38,39,40,41,42,43,44,45,46,47]. According to the results of many studies related to the chemical and structural properties of low-alloy martensitic steels, as a whole, it can be stated that Hardox steels show good weldability but depending on welding conditions, susceptibility to cracking is achieved [48]. Nevertheless, it is confirmed by research works that practically they cannot be joined by welding. The most frequently observed problems with the weldability of the Hardox 500 are its susceptibility to the brittle cracking of the welded joints and the wide zones of lower hardness in comparison to the base material [49].

Figure 7 shows an almost wide transition region between the WM and HAZ. It is almost certain that the formation of this region arises from local variations in composition and temperature. Since this region is surrounded by melting and the 100% solid region of the weld, several metallurgical phenomena may occur. Although this type of steel consists of low alloy content, the segregation of alloying and impurity elements are likely to take place at grain boundaries during processing. In addition, there possibly be localized melting temperatures at the grain boundaries in which liquation may occur. Moreover, the dissolution of carbide particles near HAZ is believed to lower its melting point. Finally, if these carbides and grain boundaries cool, residual stresses and liquation cracks appear in the transition region [52].

Figure 15 display the impact fracture surface of all three welds. As the specimen was wire-cut in the transverse direction, the V-notch was located in the WZ. Both ductile and brittle modes of fracture occurred on these fracture surfaces. The ductile zones were on the edge of the fracture surface and are composed of dimples, whereas the brittle zones were on the center of these surfaces showing cleavage river patterns. However, concerning the third weld, the ductile mode of fracture was dominant. It is believed that the initiation of the crack brings about adjacent to the V-notch, which is in the ductile fracture zone and then the propagation of the crack takes place far from the V-notch, which is in the brittle zone. In fact, during the impact test, significant deformation occurs in the microstructure before work hardening by which the load increases. Finally, as the length of the crack increases, there is a marked drop in load, which then leads to the formation of the brittle zone with a river-like pattern, which is in good agreement with the observations of Korkmaz and Meran [64].

Here, a is the crack length at various forces of pi. Additionally, b and w are the thickness and width of the compact-tension (CT) sample, respectively. By replacing the values of a and w at three different forces, the R-curves of base metal and three welds were obtained, as presented in Figure 16. Base metal possesses a higher value than three welds, which is attributed to its microstructure; in fact, a lath martensite microstructure offers excellent toughness. Regarding the three welds, in agreement with previous mechanical results, in which the second weld consisting of acicular ferrite showed better properties, this weld has better fracture toughness than the other welds. Accordingly, the first weld with more content of acicular ferrite than the third showed a higher value.


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